Decathlon: official game rules briefly
Decathlon is an independent track and field discipline, which includes competition in 10 types of athletics. This complex is today considered one of the most difficult in modern sport in the all-around category.
Traditionally, decathlon competitions are held in 2 competitive days. The final result of the participant is determined by the combination of his results in each discipline. Each type of athletics has its own point system. In calculating the final result, the number of points scored, and not the occupied places, is taken into account.
Decathlon tournaments are held only among men. In women, the heptathlon is considered an analogue of such competitions.
The main governing body in this area is the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF), founded in 1912 in Sweden. The modern headquarters of the association is in Monaco. The IAAF structure includes 6 confederations, which are governed by individual associations and federations, for example, the European Athletics Association. Each confederation includes dozens of local national federations, some of which are directly included in the IAAF.
This organization is responsible for the global development of all athletics disciplines, including decathlon. It is under the auspices of the IAAF that all significant international athletics competitions are held today. The largest of these is the World Cup, which is held every odd year in the summer. Decathlon entered the program of the championship of the planet in athletics in 1983.
Modern decathlon rules were developed in 1911, and the next became the basis for the debut Olympic tournament. The biggest changes in discipline history concerned scoring rules. The modern format for scoring was approved in 1962.
Official international decathlon tournaments last 2 days. On the first day, there are usually competitions in running 100 and 400 meters, in shot put, in long and high jumps. The main task of the participants at this stage is to demonstrate speed qualities and fast power. During the second day, competitions are held in 110 m running with hurdles, pole vaulting, 1500 m running, discus and spear throwing. These types of athletics require endurance and excellent coordination of movements from athletes.
Competitions in all disciplines within one day are held sequentially, with an interval of 30-40 minutes.
Each type of athletics included in the decathlon program has its own rules, requirements and nuances.
100 meter run
This discipline of athletics belongs to the category of sprinting. The distance is 100 meters and is measured from the start line to the finish line closest to the start. Runs are held on a straight stretch of the treadmill of the stadium. Start is made from special starting blocks.
Each runner must move only along his own track, the width of which is 1.22-1.25 m. The boundaries of the tracks are indicated by solid white lines 5 cm wide.
Official competitions are allowed only at stadiums with 8 separate racetracks. In one race, from 4 to 8 athletes can participate.
The first world record in this sport was 10.6 seconds.
400 meter run
This discipline is called the sprint marathon. The task of athletes is to overcome a distance of 400 m in a minimum time. Competitions are held on 400-meter tracks (standard open stadiums).
Start is made from a low position from special blocks. Each participant is allowed to run only on his individual track 1.22-1.25 meters wide. The finish line for each track is marked separately.
In case of entering a strange track or false start, sanctions are applied to the athlete: from adding the penalty time to the final result to disqualification.
The best runners go this distance in 44-46 seconds.
The key to success in 400 m running is the ability to correctly calculate strength.
1500 meter run
In athletics, 1.5 km is considered the average distance. Running at such a distance requires speedy endurance and tactical thinking from athletes.
The competition begins with a high start at the common starting position. Traditionally, races are held in 3 stages: preliminary races, semi-finals and the final. At some prestigious commercial starts, for example, in the Diamond League, competitions include only one final race.
Professional athletes run a distance of 1,500 m in less than 3.5 minutes. At the same time, to achieve the highest results, it is recommended to accelerate on the last lap.
In this kind of medium-distance running, athletes specializing in 800 m are successful.
This discipline is considered purely masculine, since a similar type of hurdling in women is carried out at a distance of 100 m (included in the heptathlon program). 110 m – sprint distance, requiring speed endurance and special skills to overcome barriers.
Competitions are held only on the 400-meter track of the stadium in the summer.
In this kind of decathlon, athletes must take a start from special blocks from a low position. The standard height of the barriers is 1,067 m. At a distance of 110 m, 10 barriers are evenly spaced. The distance between them should be 9.14 m.
It is important to note that the fall of the barrier is not considered a mistake for which athletes are fined. Any contact with such an obstacle slows down the athletes, so that they try to overcome them with high jumps. Professionals walk the distance between the barriers in 3 steps. With this rhythm, the speed of movement over the entire distance will remain high.
This discipline is related to the technical types of athletics. It requires athletes not only jumping, but also sprinting qualities. For professionals, the initial speed can reach 9.8 m / s.
The optimal angle of departure of the center of mass of the athlete relative to the horizon is 20-22 degrees. In this case, the height of the center of mass should reach 50-70 cm. Athletes should develop the maximum acceleration speed in the last 3-4 steps.
The long jump consists of takeoff, repulsion, phase of flight and landing.
The jump technique in the flight phase is of 3 types