Alpine skiing slalom: official game rules briefly
Slalom is one of the main disciplines of skiing, which is included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. Its name comes from the Norwegian word “slalam”, which translates as “ski track on a slope.” The essence of classic slalom is the descent from the mountain along the track on special skis.
All international competitions in this discipline are supervised by the International Ski Federation (FIS). In addition, she is responsible for amending and approving new skiing regulations. The foundation date of the federation is 1924. At first, the FIS headquarters was located in France, but then was moved to Switzerland. Today, the organization includes over 120 national and regional alpine skiing federations.
FIS annually compiles a calendar of major international tournaments. In addition, she is the organizer of the Olympic slalom competitions in conjunction with the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
The classic international standard slalom implies a descent from a mountain slope along a special route from 450 to 500 m long, which should be marked with a 4 m wide gate. In some participants in the route, the distance between the goal posts can vary from 1 to 15 m. Altitude differences in this discipline relatively small – 100-150 m. Professional athletes on the slalom track develop an average speed of more than 40 km / h.
During the descent, skiers must pass through all the goalposts, rounding them from the right side. If the goal is missed or if they cross one track, either scoring (penalty) or disqualification from the stage may follow.
At official competitions, participants need to go through 2 different tracks for the best time. For this, they are traditionally given 2 attempts each. As a result, the skier wins, who set the minimum total time on 2 slalom tracks.
Slalom requires the most maneuverable skis, although tournament organizers often do not impose equipment restrictions. The only requirement is to check the ski sliding surface. It should not have any grease or specific relief. Traditional slalom skis are short, with a small turning radius, which makes them unstable at high speed. Sticks – classic ski.
Each competitor must be equipped in a special ski elastic suit, which should “breathe” and at the same time keep warm. Slalom jumpsuits should have integrated protective inserts for the arms, shoulders, hips and pelvic bones. Safety goggles allowed.
Major international tournaments
The Winter Olympics are considered the most prestigious competition for any professional skier. The best athletes have been preparing for years and trying to occupy high places at the world stages in order to qualify for the final stage of the Olympic tournament.
Alpine skiing was included in the OI program in 1936, but for several draws the competition was limited only to a combination. Slalom was included in the Olympic tournament in 1948 in parallel with the downhill. Today in this discipline 2 sets of medals are played (for women and men).
The following famous tournaments are currently held under the auspices of FIS, the program of which includes classic slalom:
- World Cup.
The tournament became official in 1967, when the first start of the Cup took place. The debut stage took place in January in the German Berchtesgaden. The tournament program consisted only of classic slalom, and purely men were allowed to descend. By the end of the season, it was decided to urgently add women’s competitions to the program. The World Cup stages are held in different countries where ski resorts are in demand, for example, in the USA, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, France, Austria, Italy, etc.
- World Championship.
The debut alpine skiing championship was held in 1931. The main discipline of the competitive program was slalom. Until World War II, tournaments were held annually in European countries. After that, FIS decided to periodically transfer the championship of the planet to other continents. Since 1985, the World Cup began to be organized only in odd years.
- World Junior Championship.
This tournament is one of the most respected junior tournaments of all sports. He annually collects hundreds of the best skiers who compete in 5 disciplines, where one of the main is the classic slalom. It raffles 2 sets of awards. In the Junior World Championships, only skiers not older than 21 years old (at the start of the competition) are eligible to compete. The debut tournament was held in 1982.
Today, the group of favorites of any world and Olympic slalom tournament traditionally includes skiers from Austria, Switzerland and the United States. Often, competition for prizes is made by Swedish, Italian and French athletes.
History of Classical Slalom
Currently, there are two points of view about the birthplace of slalom. Some call Austria, while others are inclined to Norway. It was on the territory of Norway in 1767 that the first ever recorded competition among skiers was held. Fans of skis and snow-capped mountains decided to organize a small tournament for everyone. The competitions were held in two disciplines: descent from a steep slope without sticks and descent along a wooded slope with sticks. The main requirement for the participants was the passage of the track without falls and breakdowns. In total, 10 prizes were awarded.
At the initial stages of the development of slalom, there was no division into mountain and plain skis, so lovers with any equipment were allowed to participate. Ski technology began to take shape closer to the middle of the 19th century. The first to start it were the Norwegians from the south of the country, in the town of Telemark. Nevertheless, the main ski for a long time remained flat.