Baseball: official game rules briefly
Baseball is a popular team game with a ball and a bat, where two teams compete in a match. The name of the discipline comes from the two English words “base” and “ball”, which translates as “base” and “ball”, respectively.
Today, baseball is especially in demand in the United States, Cuba, Venezuela, as well as in Japan, South Korea and China. National teams of these countries are always considered the main favorites of any international tournaments.
The area of a standard baseball field is about 1 hectare (a square with a side of 27.4 m). Matches among juniors are held on one third of the site. Field layout is based on bases. In baseball, they draw a square (inner zone). Separately, you need to highlight the home base, next to which there is a striking player.
The square must have grass cover. The only exceptions are the corridors between the bases, the areas for the defense player and the elevation for the pitcher (thrower). The pitcher’s slide is in the center of the square and should be raised by 45 cm. Its top is covered with a plate of white hard rubber so that the thrower’s foot does not slip during the ball.
A baseball home base is briefly called a home. It is a white rubber pentagon and is located by the wedge to the defender (catcher). Bases No. 1-3 are made in the form of white squares, they are sheathed with canvas and tightly attached with metal pegs to the ground.
All field borders are also white, from ground chalk, leading from the top of the wedge of the “house” through the first and third bases to the fencing of the site. These are the penalty lines, as a foul is awarded when the ball goes beyond them. At the ends of the foul lines there are foul masts, according to which the judges determine the location of the projectile in the field. The length of the penalty line should be from 75 to 100 m. The entire playing area is called fair.
On both sides of the home zone there are rectangular zones for kicking players. The coaching ground is located 5 m from the first and third bases behind the foul line. The benches are located at a distance of 12 m from the home area. Next to them there are round zones for warming up.
The duel is held between 2 teams, which in turn attack and defend. The goal of the game is a set of points (wounds). Whoever performs the most productive actions during the match will win. A baseball point is given if the player of the attacking team runs in turn all the bases located in the corners of the square.
The ball for the game is covered with white skin and stitched with red stitches. Its weight is in the range 142-149 g, and the circumference is 22.8-23.5 cm. All corners of the site are called counterclockwise in order: “home”, first base, second base, third base.
In the match, the defending team has 9 players on the field. Their goal will be to stop the opponent from earning points. The away team in baseball always starts the game in attack first. The attacker strives to earn the right to run counterclockwise through each base until he returns home. For this effective action, the referees count the attacking team a point.
At the starting position, one of the players of the defending team (pitcher) should stand in the center of the square on a special slide. The remaining 8 partners are in their respective positions. The hitting player, who is also the attacking player, gets up with a bat in his hands near the “house” and waits for the pitcher to throw him the ball. The projectile sent to the side of the “house” the attacker must be beaten back with a bat, after which he can start a run.
In baseball, there are several ways to get an attacker out of the game (out):
Strike out. The batter could not beat off any of the three throws, that is, the server made 3 strikes.
Force out. The defense player touched the ball to the next base before the attacker.
Ground out. The defense player caught the ball and threw it to his teammate, who is standing at the base, before touching the striker.
Tag out. The defense player gripped the ball in the glove and touched it to the runner when he was between the bases.
Fly out. A defending player caught the ball before it hit the ground.
In baseball, a match is divided into periods (innings). In each of them, teams play once in defense and in attack. A change of place occurs after 3 attacking players go out. In official tournaments, fights consist of 9 innings. If the score is equal in total, additional periods are assigned until the winner is identified. Baseball games cannot end in a draw, except for some professional leagues in Asia.
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Each striker approach to the home zone consists of a series of innings that are performed by the pitcher. The ball should be sent towards the “house” at a height from the knees to the striker’s chest. The batter is allowed to hit only those balls that fly in the strike zone. For failure to comply with these conditions of filing and its admission, the attacker or pitcher receives penalty points. If the batter missed the ball with a bat, a strike is awarded.
The task of the pitcher is a difficult serve, which cannot be repelled by the player of the attacking team. The batter must react in a matter of seconds to the direction of the projectile.