Athletics: official game rules briefly
Track and field athletics refers to the Olympic sports and includes such disciplines as:
- cross-country views;
- crosses, etc.
Today, athletics is considered one of the most popular sports among professionals, amateurs and spectators.
The governing body in this area is the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The governing structure was created back in 1912, today it unites more than 200 national federations under its auspices. The headquarters of the organization is based in Monaco. The IAAF is responsible for conducting major international athletics competitions, monitoring compliance with the rules, and maintaining the world ranking of leading athletes.
In Europe, the organization of tournaments in athletics, for example, open and closed European championships, is engaged in EAA. In Russia, the All-Russian Athletics Federation (VFLA) is promoting discipline. One of the most respected national associations in the world is considered USA T&F (USA).
The victory in the athletics competition is won by the athlete or team who showed the best result in the final stage, race or attempt in a specific discipline. In cross-country events, competitions are traditionally held in several stages (qualification, quarter-finals and semi-finals). As a result of the selection, a group of athletes or teams is identified that will play each other medals in the final.
The number of participants at each stage is governed by the rules of a particular discipline. For example, at the Olympics in running, one country can put from 1 to 3 participants in the tournament, and one team is allowed at the relay. In all-around, walking and cross-country there are only finals.
Athletics has always been a conservative sport. In evidence, the male disciplines program at the Summer Olympics can be cited. It consists of 24 species and has not changed since 1956. The women’s competition program includes 23 disciplines, since women do not have a 50 km walk. If we take the championships indoors, they are represented by 13 species for men and 13 for women.
List of disciplines
Official cross-country sports include:
- 60 m with and without barriers;
- 100 m with and without barriers;
- 110 m with barriers (for men);
- 200 m;
- 400 m with and without barriers;
- 800 m;
- 1,500 m;
- 3000 m with and without barriers;
- 5000 m;
- 10 km;
- marathon (42.2 km);
- relay race 4 of 100 m;
- relay race 4 by 400 m.
Technical track and field disciplines are:
- long jump;
- High jump;
- pole vaulting;
- triple jumps;
- discus throw;
- hammer throwing;
- shot put;
At official starts, men and women do not participate in joint competitions.
World records and top achievements in athletics are recorded only in tournaments under the auspices of the IAAF.
Training, warm-ups and competitions can be held both outdoors and indoors. Summer season competitions are traditionally held from April to October in open stadiums. This applies to the Olympic Games, and world championships, and European championships, and other rating tournaments.
During the winter season, competitions are held from January to March indoors, that is, in playpens. These include the winter world and European championships.
Walking and cross-country tournaments are held on a separate calendar. The most prestigious marathon competitions are held in spring and autumn in the open air.
Athletics stadiums are often combined with football, as well as with lacrosse and rugby. Such arenas exist in any country in the world and include an oval 400-meter track consisting of 8 or 9 separate tracks. Such stadiums should have sectors for all kinds of jumps and throwings. If the obstacle course of 3000 m is included in the competition program, then water pits are taken out to a special bend.
All tracks in the stadium have their own markings, where the start, finish, places for barriers, corridors and other sectors are marked. The platform for throwing spears and hammers can be moved outside the arena if there is a risk of the projectile flying towards the participants of the competitions or spectators.
The track and field arena should have a 200-meter oval track, which consists of 4 or 6 separate lanes. Additionally, the indoor area is equipped with sectors for hopping and running for 60 m. The program of winter competitions from throwing disciplines includes only shot put, but this type does not require a special sector.
In modern arenas on bends, they make a slope angle of up to 18 degrees in order to make it easier for runners to take turns with a small radius.
The most common and prestigious official competitions in the world of athletics are:
- Olympic Games. In the program of the Summer Olympics, the discipline has been presented since 1896, that is, from the first draw of the Games of the modern formation. Women’s competitions were first held at the Olympics in Amsterdam in 1928.
- World Championship. Passes in every odd year, starting with the summer season of 1983. In 2013, the tournament was first organized in Russia.
- World Indoor Championships. The debut championship was held in 1985. Since then it has been held in the winter every even year.
- Europe championship. It is held every 2 years from the mid-1930s only for the EAA representative countries.
- European Indoor Championships. Traditionally held in March of each odd year. The debut took place in 1966.
- Junior World Cup. Only athletes no older than 19 years old can take part in it. The first tournament was held in 1986. Today, from once every 2 years.
- World Cup among boys and girls. Only athletes of senior youth categories who are 16 or 17 years old in the year of competition are allowed to participate in starts.
- Continental Cup. The usual name is the World Cup. Held under the auspices of the IAAF once every 4 years in several stages.
- Race Walking World Cup. It takes place every 2 years.
- World Cup Cross Country. Every odd year is spent.