Pole vaulting: official game rules briefly
Pole vaulting refers to the vertical technical form of athletics. In this sport, the jumper must pass over the bar with the help of a special pole, without overturning it. To date, pole vaults are included in the Olympic program and in the track and field athletics all-around among men and women. This is a very popular and recognizable discipline throughout the world.
Pole vaulting can be called the most extraordinary technical type of athletics, because to achieve the goal the athlete needs to use foreign objects. Professional jumpers must have endurance, a well-developed muscular system and undergo complete gymnastic training. Otherwise, they will not be able to claim high places in rating international tournaments.
Modern competitions in this discipline are notable for their duration, since they often drag on for many hours, but spectators never have to get bored, as in tennis. At the Olympic Games, to limit the time of the competition, athletes are given a fixed number of attempts that they can miss or transfer. For example, if an athlete fails to conquer one height, he can transfer the attempt to the next.
The pole vault technique consists of 6 stages:
- take off;
- push ups;
- Crossing the bar
The take-off phase starts from the moment the athlete’s body is out of balance and ends with the pushing of the foot. Each professional pursues the following goals:
- development of maximum controlled speed;
- the formation of the rhythm-tempo structure of the take-off with an increased frequency of running steps at the end of the distance;
- Calculation of a running step for a comfortable positioning of a foot on a support before repulsion;
- effective implementation of the pole in place of emphasis.
The length of the run for different athletes varies from 35 to 45 meters. These are approximately 18-22 standard running steps. Professional jumpers develop speeds by the end of the run to 9.6-9.8 m / s. During the run, the athlete slowly raises the pole to a vertical position for maximum acceleration.
The first steps athletes perform with a slight tilt of the body forward. Running speed gradually increases in parallel with the frequency and length of steps. The pole must be kept loose so that it does not cause additional vibration. Elbow movements should be rhythmic, that is, in pace running.
During the increase in running speed, the body of the jumper straightens, and the knees rise higher. During this period, the lowering of the legs from the hip to the support should be emphasized. In the middle of the running distance, the athlete needs to keep the same pace of acceleration. This is achieved by uniformly lowering the pole and bending the right hand so that the speed of lowering the projectile is synchronous with the speed of the athlete. Any braking of the pole at the moment of its lowering will lead to a significant loss of overall speed.
In the final phase of the take-off run, that is, in the last steps, the pole should be actively advanced forward, directing it with the left hand into the drawer for emphasis. In this case, the upper end of the projectile must be raised. In order not to violate the straightness of movement during the removal and emphasis of the pole, the athlete carries it as close to the body as possible. At close range, the pole should become soft, but with the highest acceleration speed. This is the main condition for quick repulsion and effective departure.
The repulsion phase begins at the moment when the athlete puts the push leg on the ground, and continues until the legs break away from him. In addition, each professional jumper sets himself the following tasks:
- creation of a vertical velocity vector with the least loss of horizontal velocity;
- achieving body position for effective bending of the pole and subsequent advance forward.
The repulsion phase in pole vaulting is similar in technique to the repulsion during long jumps. The only exception is hand movement. The foot should be placed on the ground straight, actively on top of the thigh, firmly on the entire foot at an angle of 65 degrees. The dynamic blow, which is generated by the energy of the athlete’s body after setting the jogging leg, is mitigated by flexion in the knee joint (up to 35 degrees).
By swinging the right leg bent at the knee, the athlete quickly passes the pelvis and chest through the pushing leg, while leaving the left leg and right arm behind the body. The task of the jumper is to actively push forward the straightened torso and supporting leg. At this moment, an angle of 90 degrees is formed between the pole and forearm of the left hand. The right hand “pulls” the projectile down a bit to increase the bending power of the pole.
On average, the repulsion time of a professional jumper from the ground is about 0.12-0.15 seconds. After repulsion, the athlete goes into the so-called position of the hang. Its duration and depth depend on previous actions and determine the further progress of the buckle.