Long Jump: The Official Game Rules Briefly
Long jumps are a special kind of technical category of the athletics program, which refers to horizontal jumps. They require athletes to maximize jumping ability, mastery of their own body, developed muscular system, excellent coordination and sprinting qualities. Today, this sport is included in the program of the Olympic Games, where men and women can participate on equal terms.
For long jumps, an important point is the initial speed of running and pushing away. World-class male athletes can push off the board at speeds of up to 9.8 m / s. In women, this indicator is obviously lower, but only with general calculations. When repelled, the athlete’s ideal angle of flight to the horizon is 20 degrees. The center of mass heights should be in a relative normal position when walking 50-70 cm. Traditionally, athletes gain the highest speed in the last 3-4 steps of their run.
The long jump consists of 4 elements:
- take off;
Each of them in training and competition should be given maximum attention.
Experts recommend that athletes use the entire length of the track to run to achieve the highest speed before pushing away. At the same time, it is necessary to start the run so that in the end the jerk leg is exactly on the bar at the time of acceleration of movement. The distance to the bar in men varies in the range of 35-45 m, and in the female and youth categories – 25-35 m. As for acceleration, it should be uniform throughout the final stretch of the run.
With increasing speed, the body of the jumper straightens up so that the last step is done in an upright position. During the first half of the run, the rhythm must be constant. This ensures the correct setting of the legs. A jumper can work out an optimal rhythm only after numerous exhausting workouts with acceleration. To make life easier for athletes in competitions, one or two dash lines are marked on the tracks. The latter means that 6 steps are left on average per bar.
It is important that the movement from the forward position to the up position after repulsion does not entail a loss of speed. That is why it is recommended to change the rhythm of running in the last 2-4 steps. Modern professional athletes prefer an extension of the penultimate step of 20-30 cm. The last step should be performed with a decrease in leg span. This will ensure quick repulsion and minimal loss of forward speed.
Today, there are 3 main phases of repulsion during a long jump:
- Active setting of a straightened leg on a bar.
- The appearance of inhibition due to the setting of the foot on the bar and the complete muscle tension of the jogging leg.
- Directly pushing the foot away from the bar.
The first two phases can be called technical preparation for repulsion, and the last begins immediately after the athlete’s center of gravity goes beyond the vertical. At this time, the jerky, swinging bent leg and arms should perform an energetic swing forward upwards. The push force during repulsion directly depends on the speed of the swing.
Before and at the time of repulsion from the bar, the body should be so straightened that the line of action resulting from the swing slightly ahead of the center of gravity of the athlete’s body and provide him with a slight deviation back. If everything is done correctly, what is the position of the torso when pushing away gives the jumper a known advantageous position for landing.
If during repulsion the line of influence is beyond the center of gravity, then this error will entail the appearance of forward torque, due to which the jumper prematurely touches the ground with his feet. It is important to remember that the flight path is determined by the speed and angle of departure of the athlete when separated from the bar.
At this phase of the jump, the athlete cannot influence the change in the arc of flight through any movements. All his actions should be aimed at maintaining balance and preparing for the correct landing. This moment is characteristic for all methods and styles of long jump.
In order to better maintain balance in the flight phase, it is recommended to push off from the bar with the body slightly tilted back. At the same time, a wide running step is performed in the air without deflection of the body in the lower back (important clarification).
Any deviation of the body during flight ends at the moment when the highest point of the flight curve is reached. Otherwise, the athlete will not be able to properly prepare for the landing. Many professional jumpers tilt their torso forward slightly for effective landing, raising their legs to a perpendicular position. A similar technique can only be used in the final stage of flight.
Before landing, the athlete should straighten his torso again and lower his legs slightly. Thanks to this position, the longest jump length will be achieved.
If at the time of flight the hull is not tilted back, then the jumper will not have time to lift his legs. Therefore, when landing, the range of the jump will decrease.
All actions of the athlete in the phase of flight are aimed at passing the maximum distance. When landing, the jumper must strain all the muscles and group properly so as not to get serious injuries and sprains.