Long-distance running: the official rules of the game briefly
Long-distance running is a combination of running athletics disciplines at different distances. Depending on the tournament regulations, the distance for running can be 3000 meters, and 5000, and more. Races are often arranged on the highway so that athletes do not wind hundreds of laps around the stadium field. All official competitions in this discipline are organized by the IAAF. Only commercial and charitable private tournaments can be considered an exception.
Kinds of long-distance running
To date, experts distinguish some of the most popular categories of styer running at international competitions:
2 miles (3218 m)
This distance can be safely called historical, because now it is very rare in international competitions. Often this type of race includes commercial and charity races. The distance of 2 miles is still warmly received by the British, because it is associated with their historical values. Today, the analogue of this distance is 3000 meters. 3.2 km running is most often open for youth tournaments. World records for the current IAAF running category are not recorded.
It belongs to the category of stadium athletics disciplines and requires speed endurance and tactical thinking from runners. It has been part of the main program of the Olympic Games for men since 1912, for women since 1996. Often, international competitions are held in the summer on a 400-meter track, and in the winter on a 200-meter track.
Running for 10 kilometers.
The decisive victories at this distance are endurance, average running speed and tactical thinking, that is, a competent distribution of forces. Professional athletes often end this distance with a sprint. Since 1912, running for 10 kilometers is part of the men’s athletics program of the Olympics. As for the similar distance in women, it was included in the OI only in 1988. If before competitions in this kind of running were held on rough terrain, today organizers are increasingly confining themselves to highways.
This type of running athletics is known to the world public a little less than everyone else, but it is still recognized by the IAAF and is included in the program of most international tournaments. The result of the competition is determined by the distance that the runner will overcome in 60 minutes, that is, exactly 1 hour. Official competitions are traditionally held on the tracks of the stadium.
The essence of this category of long-distance running is that athletes must start at the same time or with a certain handicap. Throughout the journey, they must develop maximum speed, not forgetting the competent distribution of forces. Judges warn participants about the remaining time after 30, 45, 55 and 59 minutes from the start. The race ends after a special signal. Then the judges mark the location on the tracks of each participant in the competition on the hind leg. Who ran more, he won.
Running on 20 and 25 km.
These types of long-distance running are found only in rare cases at commercial starts. IAAF official records for them are not recorded.
Long distance running technique
All elements of this type of running require competent execution:
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When running for more than 5 kilometers, the correct setting of the legs is very important. The foot should land and push off the track gradually and gently. First, the front of the foot is placed, and then the rest of its components. The reverse running technique will lead to increased loads on the legs, which will significantly reduce the effectiveness of movements. Smooth rolling of the feet allows athletes to maintain their momentum and speed. During repulsion, the leg should be straightened. In this case, the head does not turn and does not bend. Glance is directed only forward.
Close to marathon distances require very active help from the hands. They should be bent at the elbows 90 degrees. This allows you to gain and maintain maximum running speed. A common mistake of lay runners is a small angle of bending of the hands, which prevents them from quickly dissecting the air. There are no restrictions on the torso, so each athlete chooses an angle individually.
Maintaining the maximum pace of running over long distances helps proper breathing. If you do not pay proper attention to this moment, then even the fastest athletes will not be able to reach the finish line in time. The breathing of professional runners is rhythmic, regulated by the movement of legs, steps. Only even breathing is a guarantee of a long distance (more than 5 km). Inhale and exhale should be slow and deep, without interruption. This will help to supply oxygen to the body cells in a timely manner. Experts recommend combining normal breathing with abdominal breathing. Thus, the blood circulation process improves.