Aikido: official game rules briefly
Aikido is a modern complex of Japanese spiritual and physical practices, invented by master Ueshiba as a synthesis of martial arts, religious beliefs and philosophy. The name of this discipline consists of three parts (hieroglyphs), which have the following meanings:
- “Ai” means “harmony”, “connection”, “agreement with something”;
- “Ki” is translated as “vital energy”, “strength of mind”, “breath”;
- “Do” means “way” or “way”.
Together, the combination of “Aiki” translates as “becoming one with the energy of the vital force.” All three hieroglyphs in the Russian adaptation mean “the path to harmony of the spirit.” Today, followers of this movement prefer to translate “Aikido” as “a way to merge with life energy.” The goal of the art invented by Ueshiba is to create a practice of protecting himself and the attacker from injuries.
Aikido technique is based on evading attacks of opponents, redirecting the energy of attacks towards defense and grabbing the hands of the enemy to impede attempts to continue the battle. At the same time, the attacker through his actions helps the defender in carrying out receptions. Aikido technique is based on smooth movements. Even throws, if performed correctly, do not cause the opponent pain and injuries.
History of Aikido
The key date for the emergence of this practice can be called 1920. Ueshiba, a master of spiritual and martial arts, invented aikido technique in Ayabe this year. That time was associated with his great family tragedy. In a short time two of his sons and father died. He was heartbroken and sought solace in the religious teachings of Oomoto-ke, which later had a major impact on Aikido philosophy.
Ueshiba soon set up a small school in his house dedicated to the study of Oomoto-ke. Gradually, the master’s program expanded, and as a result, a modest class of followers turned into an impressive academy. Ueshiba’s fame as a martial artist spread rapidly throughout the district, so that the number of his loyal students grew inexorably.
In early 1922, Ueshiba managed to persuade his teacher Takeda to move to him in Ayabe to promote his practices. This triggered the development of aikido. While Ueshiba was studying spiritual arts, Takeda traveled all over Japan and trained students using the yagyu-ryu and daito-ryu techniques. In parallel, Ueshiba studied individually with his teacher at the Ayabe estate, without departing far from his academy. At the end of 1922, the master received an instructor certificate, which allowed him to fully promote his spiritual and military practice – aikido.
Features of Aikido Practice
The fundamental difference between this art and conventional martial arts was hidden in the interpretation of the concepts of “attack” and “defense”. If in ordinary military practices an attack means aggression, and protection means the response by aggression to aggression, then in aikido an attack is disharmony caused by aggression, so that all actions of the defender should be aimed at defense, that is, at throwing or withdrawing. Thus, the followers of aikido contributed to the construction of harmony in the world and spiritual balance.
It was very important for Ueshiba Master that, as a result of actions, inner harmony would not be disturbed. The faster the opponent is defeated, the faster the general balance will be restored.
Aikido Ranks and Weapons
This type of martial arts has a clear ranking system. It consists of student and master degrees, which are called “kyu” and “dan”, respectively. In total, student degrees are 6, but in modern children’s groups it is customary to distinguish 10 kyu. To get the next kyu in aikido, you need to master the technique of the appropriate level in 2-6 months and successfully pass the exam, demonstrating your level of skill. Traditionally, 2 exams are held annually.
Having received the highest student degree, the student has the right to study according to the master’s program, passing for dan every 3-6 months. The total number of danes is 10.
Aikido has special shells called weapons:
- Dzeh (wooden pole about 130 cm long);
- bokken (wooden training sword);
- wakizashi (short samurai blade);
- bo (long jo);
- tanto (wooden knife).
Today, an organization that professionally studies and popularizes Aikido practices is called the Aikikai Foundation. It was created in Japan in 1940 by the master Ueshiba.
At present, dozens of national and regional federations operate in the world, which are guided by the rules and requirements for holding tournaments by the rules of Aikido Aikikai.
The headquarters of the Fund is based in Tokyo. It is from there that all major international aikido competitions are coordinated. To popularize art, the best Aikikai instructors go with trainings to the countries of Europe, Africa, South and North America, Asia. According to the latest census, around 1.5 million people occupy aikido professionally around the world.
Aikido World Championships have been held relatively recently – since August 2017. The debut championship was attended by the best aikido masters from Japan, Russia, Georgia, Great Britain, the USA, Australia and many other countries. It was purely indicative, and judges evaluated only the mastery of the basic elements of art. Subsequent World tournaments began to be held every year and have the status of an open championship.