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Cycling: official game rules briefly

Cycling is a combination of sports disciplines related to cycling at certain distances. Today, cycling includes many subspecies, for example, race on the track and highway, mountain races, competitions on rough terrain and figure riding, and many others, but only a small part of them are included in the program of the Olympic Games. Many disciplines are included in championships and cups of various statuses, there are rating, there are amateur, semi-professional, etc. Some of them are included in the triathlon.

The main goal of any racing category of cycling is to quickly overcome the distance or terrain on a special bike.

The official international competition is overseen by the International Cycling Union, which is based in Switzerland. Additionally, in each country there are corresponding national federations responsible for organizing local tours and selecting their representatives for major international championships.

Cycling at the Olympics
From the very beginning of the Olympic Games, cycling was included in the main program of the summer competitions. For the first time, professional cyclists took part in the Athens Olympics in 1896. Then, representatives of 5 European countries competed in the race. They were supposed to identify the strongest in 5 types of track races and one on the highway. At the first Games, a unique achievement was demonstrated by the Frenchman P. Masson, who became the winner immediately in 3 disciplines.

Until 1928, only the race on the track was included in the Olympic program. The modern competition plan was adopted by the IOC in conjunction with the International Cycling Union. Women were allowed to participate in the Games only in 1984. Prior to that, they were allowed to perform at the demonstration races.

The second half of the 20th century brought gold metals mainly to cyclists from France, Italy, Great Britain, Denmark and the USSR. In 1996, at the Atlanta Olympics, mountain racing on special bicycles with wide wheels was included for the first time in the tournament program. In this discipline for a long time there were no equal to American athletes.

The program of the latest Olympic Games is regularly expanding. Today, it includes about 20 types of competitions using bicycles, with 7 of them playing sets of medals for women.

For more information about the features and rules of the most rated cycling disciplines, see below.

Road cycling
This is the most demanded and replicated discipline of cycling, which involves overcoming long distances on a paved road. It has been part of the summer Olympic program since 1896. The regular season begins in March and ends in October. In financial terms, road racing is considered the most attractive for modern athletes. The highest rated Grand Tours are held annually in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Denmark, Switzerland, Russia, Japan, the USA and Canada.

Popular types of road racing:

One-day classic.
It follows the standard route during one competition day. The main difficulty of the race lies in the great distance – more than 200 km on various road surfaces and rough terrain.

Criterium.
Traditionally held in city halls for one day. The criterion race, included in the final stage of the Tour de France, is considered the most significant.

Stage race.
This is a race that consists of several stages, lasting from 3 to 10 days. In this discipline, individual medals are played at individual stages and in the overall standings. There is also a final team standings.

Grand tour.
This is the most prestigious highway bike tournament. Victory in it is appreciated by athletes more than gold at the Olympics or World Championships. The Grand Tour is a 3-week race consisting of 21 stages on various profiles, with 2 days of rest. The decisive races for the overall standings are the races of the “royal mountain stage”, as well as races with a separate start. Only 3 Grand Tours are held per year: in France, Italy and Spain.

Track cycling
This is a kind of cycling, competitions in which are held on special velodromes or cycle tracks. Included in the program of the Olympics since 1896.

The most common types of track racing:

Sprinting.
Racers must determine the winner according to the results of 8-10 laps. In cycling sprint, the chosen tactics and power strength play a key role. This category of races is characterized by short distances, so representatives of this discipline rarely take part in endurance competitions. To date, there are such types of sprint races as the classic sprint, team, keyrin, tandem race, git.

Tempo.
These races take place only at long distances. They test participants for endurance and the availability of a full base of technical skills. The distance depends on the type of pace race (from 12 to 120 laps).

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