Bowling: official game rules briefly
Bowling is a popular sports game known throughout the world. Its name comes from the English word “bowl”, which means “roll” in translation. The goal of the game is to knock down pins with special balls located at a certain distance in the shape of a triangle on a tarmac. The party who knocked down the most pins wins the game.
Today in the world there are many varieties of bowling, which differ in the number of pins, throws, points scoring rules, the shape of shells and targets, their weight and other characteristics. The most popular of them is the classic 10-pin bowling, which is called “tenpin”. The pins in it are arranged in the form of a triangle, and the game itself follows the rules written back in the late 19th century.
The leading country in terms of the number of open bowling clubs is the United States. In addition, the game is very popular in the countries of the British Commonwealth, in Japan and Scandinavia. According to official figures, bowling is in demand in more than 120 countries. Experienced players always join clubs, and clubs then become the foundation for the formation of a national association.
The most authoritative association is the International Bowling Federation (WB), which unites more than 130 countries of the world. The scope of WB’s activities includes the regulation of the rules of the competition, the organization of world championships, the standardization of equipment requirements. World Cups held under the auspices of the Federation, traditional are held in different countries every 2 years.
Terms and Rules
A party in a classic bowling consists of 10 frames. Each player within one frame has 2 shots. If it turned out to bring down all 10 pins, then they say about the strike. It is indicated by an “X” in the scoring system. A double strike in a row is usually called a spar. Its standard designation is “/”. If, according to the results of the first throw, non-adjacent pins remain on the track, then the combination is called split (“S”). In the case of a double miss, the frame is called “open.”
It is worth noting that the strike and sper in individual frames does not play a decisive role in determining the winner of the party. In this case, only the last frame has a special status. If in the 10th frame a player knocks out a strike on the first try, then he is given two more throws instead of one. After the end of the last frame, non-knocked pins remain on the track, but the party ends.
The winner is determined automatically by the most points scored for all 10 frames. The maximum possible points in a classic bowling can be 300 (30 points for each frame). Traditionally, the best representatives of this sports game for a game gain 200-220 points. Record results (over 220 points) cannot be called systematic.
Three consecutive bowling strikes are called “graters,” and four are called “hambones.”
In official competitions, only 10-pin sets are used. All projectile and equipment standards must comply with WB specifications:
Under the tracks in modern bowling refers to the floor with a special coating. The base of the tracks is made from maple or pine planks 1 inch thick and 3 inches wide. For open arenas, a canopy from rain and sun should be installed above them. In professional clubs, tracks are made of heavy-duty synthetic materials that do not require varnish.
The standard track length from the approach line to the center point of pin 1 is 18.29 m, the total length from edge to edge is 19.16 m. The width of the track according to the WB specification is 1.05 m. Moreover, the term “track” also includes line of approach, approach area, chippers, flat troughs, tailgate, platform and pin shaft, marking, pointers and automatic pin installation system. All landmarks in the approach zone are round. The width of the gap line is from 1 to 2.5 cm. Before the start of the tournament, all tracks undergo laboratory measurements.
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Skittles were originally made of stone, clay and wood. Today they are made from their hard maple. The weight of one pin is from 1.5 to 1.65 kg. The nominal height is 38 cm, and the radius of curvature in the upper part is 3.2 cm. At a height of 11.5 cm above the base, the diameter should be 12.2 cm. In this case, the accuracy of the measurements is very important, since the pin’s center of gravity directly depends on it. , that is, its stability. Each skittle should show resistance to the mass of a 16-pound ball at 24%.
Pins can be reasonably worn, splinters, dirt cleared, various patches if all WB regulations are complied with.
The first balls were made of stone, then they began to use hollow iron shells. In the 19th century, the optimal solution was found – a backout. This is a very rare wood species in terms of strength and hardness, but mass production was hindered by the inappropriately high cost of balls. Today, shells are made of polyester, synthetic rubber and polyurethane modifications.