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Biathlon: official game rules briefly

Biathlon is one of the most famous and respected winter sports, which is included in the program of the Olympic Games. This discipline successfully combines skiing and rifle shooting.

Today, international biathlon competitions are among the most rated and sought after tournaments that are broadcast live on television. Especially winter discipline is popular in the countries of northern Europe and in Russia. In the entire history of international competitions, the most successful teams are the teams of Norway, Germany, Austria, Russia, France, China, Belarus, Ukraine, Sweden, Canada, the USA, and the Czech Republic. Skiers from these countries are always ranked among the favorites of any world biathlon championships.

It is worth noting that in several regions alternative varieties of biathlon have spread, for example, cross-country skiing with archery, snowshoe biathlon, etc. In addition, there are well-known analogues in the program of summer tournaments, for example, a mountain bike race with shooting or a roller-ski biathlon, cross-biathlon. Yet classical discipline is far ahead in popularity around the world.

Rules and requirements
In modern biathlon you can use any style of skiing. Moreover, the length of the ski depends on the dimensions of the athlete. According to the rules, they should not be shorter than the height of the skier, and the maximum length is not limited. The width of the skis can be from 4 cm, the average weight – from 0.75 kg. In official competitions, standard skis and ski poles are used, the length of which should not exceed the height of the rider. In addition, sticks of variable length and with all kinds of push boosters are prohibited.

For shooting, rifles with a weight of 3.5 kg or more are usually used, which must be transported on the back during the race. Biathletes are prohibited from self-loading or automatic weapons. An important requirement for the trigger: to press, you must apply a force of at least 0.5 kg. The sight should not increase the target. Often, athletes use a diopter sight and a ring fly. Ammo caliber – 5.6 mm. Professionals have a bullet take-off speed of 380 m / s when fired.

The distance from the shooting range to the targets is exactly 50 m. At international tournaments, 5 black targets on a white plate are used. If the athlete hits the target, then it closes with a white valve. Thus, the biathlete can see its result. On sighting, the competitors are given classic paper targets. All targets in biathlon are strictly standardized. The diameter of the black circle should be 11.5 cm. The valve is made so that at the slightest rebound it closes, that is, the hit counts.

In biathlon, each participant in the race gives 5 shots. For each miss, he must run an additional penalty loop. The time spent on additional laps is added to the current time of the athlete. The biathlon is won by the participant who first came to the finish line, so any delay can be worth the prize. In the relay, skiers are given 8 rounds per 5 targets (manual charging).

Varieties of racing
Currently, the following races are held at the largest biathlon tournaments:

Individual race.
This classic discipline is a 20 km race among men, 15 km among women and juniors, and 12.5 km in youth categories. Competitors must complete 5 laps of 4, 3 and 2.5 km, respectively. They start with a delay of 30 seconds in a certain order. Between circles, athletes go to the shooting range. The first and third shooting is performed lying down, and the second and fourth – from a standing position. For a miss, one penalty minute is added to the total time of the skier.

Sprint.
10 km race for men and juniors and 7.5 km for women and youth. At a distance, athletes need to go to the firing line twice. The biathlete’s path consists of 3 circles of the same length. Start is carried out with an interval of 30 seconds. Shooting after the first round is performed lying down, after the second round – standing. Firing positions are selected arbitrarily. For a slip, a penalty circle of 150 m is provided.

Mass start.
The biathlon race for men is 15 km, for women and juniors – 12.5 km, for youth categories – 10 km. The race consists of 5 laps and 4 firing lines. A distinctive feature is a common start for all participants. Shooting after the first two circles – lying down, after the third and fourth – standing. Seats at the shooting range must be occupied according to the order of arrival at the line. A penalty loop (150 m) is awarded for each miss.

Pursuit.
Men and juniors need to go the distance of 12.5 km, women and boys – 10 km. On the way from 5 circles of the race participants waiting for 4 firing lines. Start – separate, according to the results of the sprint. The rest of the rules are similar to the sprint race.

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Mixed relay.
In the adult categories of the team are 4 members, in the younger – of 3 people.

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