Bobsleigh: official game rules briefly
Bobsleigh is on the list of the most famous and rated winter sports. This discipline is a descent from the mountain along a specially equipped ice track on a controlled sleigh called bean.
The organization of major international tournaments and the global popularization of bobsled is the responsibility of the FIBS (IBSF). The Federation was created in 1923 and since then has united more than 50 national federations and associations. Under the auspices of FIBS championships and world cups are held. The first world bobsleigh championship was held in 1924, and the Cup in 1980.
The European and North American associations are subordinate to the International Federation, which annually organize large local tournaments. In addition, serious competitions are often held in individual countries. Local federations and unions are responsible for their organization.
Bobsleigh entered the program of the Winter Olympic Games in 1924. At that time, the competition was held on the “fours” and “fives”. Since 1932, the format of Olympic races has changed to double and quadruple sleighs.
Rules and Ranks
In bobsleigh there are no adjacent discharges on the floors. Men and women compete in separate categories. In addition, there is a certain division into weight categories.
The main task of the bobsleigh is to go downhill along the ice track with a maximum speed in a minimum of time.
To date, it is correct to distinguish the following types of races:
There are no uniform requirements for the number of runs in different tournaments. Athletes are often offered 2 or 4 attempts. For example, at the Olympics, bobsledders must do 4 runs each. After completing the route, the time of each lap is summed up. As a result, the winner is the athlete or team with the least time spent on the route.
There are two age categories in bobsleigh:
Junior (up to 26 years old);
adult (over 26 years old inclusive).
It is worth noting that according to the FIBS rules, boys and girls under 18 years old have the right to participate in official competitions, but only with notarized permission of the parents. This requirement does not apply to training in sports sections.
A double equipped bob without a crew should weigh at least 170 kg, and with a team in full ammunition – no more than 390 kg. As for the four-seat sled, their minimum permissible weight is 210 kg, and the maximum – 630 kg. The full weight of the bean includes the weight of athletes, equipment and the car itself.
The design of the track has a very complex shape. It combines long sections and many bends at different angles horizontally and vertically. The results of athletes and their health directly depend on the correctness of the project and structure. It is no secret that fireballs fly along artificial ice routes at a speed of 90-100 km / h. If the walls are low and the turns are sharp, then the likelihood of a bobsledder flying from a distance increases, which in most cases leads to injuries incompatible with further professional sports activities.
The design should consist of a strong reinforced concrete base. Ice coating is applied to the track with a special cooling system, which in parallel is designed to maintain the desired temperature of the structure. Of metal and concrete, traditionally perform gutters, the bottom of the track, sides and various piles.
Throughout the length of the route, special motion sensors are located on the sides, which measure the passage time of the sled in fractions of seconds. This helps not only judges and viewers to determine the speed and time of athletes, but also allows for parallel descents. In recent years, cameras have been installed on the beans themselves, allowing you to monitor the trajectory of the sled and the team’s equipment.
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The track is cooled by means of a refrigerant, which passes through the tubes from the refrigeration system to special capsules laid along the entire structure.
To make the track and the races more attractive, an LED layer is installed under the ice cover. At the same time, it helps the bobsledders to better focus on distance, and attracts spectator interest.
The most difficult type of bobsleigh is the team discharge, that is, the so-called “four”. It includes:
The helmsman is considered to be the main one in the team, since he has the maximum responsibility for the result and the health of the crew. He must calculate the speed when entering different sections of the route. Often this role is given to the team captain.
In the front movable part of the bean there are control rings, and in the rear static are the other three crew members. The helmsman holds in his hands a cable that is attached to the steering wheel. At the time of rotation, he pulls the cable in the right direction, directing the projectile along a certain path.
A pair of overclockers is called upon at the start to accelerate the sled as synchronously as possible.