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Biathlon: official game rules briefly
Biathlon is one of the most famous and respected winter sports, which is included in the program of the Olympic Games. This discipline successfully combines skiing and rifle shooting. Today,…

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Basketball: official game rules briefly

Basketball is a team sport in which players throw the ball with their hands into the opponent’s basket. In a duel, 2 teams of 5 field players compete, and the number of substitutions is unlimited. The goal of the game is to score more points by throwing into someone else’s ring than the opponent. To this end, teams are permitted to keep the ball and pass in accordance with official rules.

Today, basketball is considered one of the most sought after and popular sports on the planet. He is part of the Summer Olympics program. In addition, world and European championships are regularly held, as well as various rating tournaments of clubs, for example, the NBA and the Euroleague. Both men and women play basketball at a professional level, but in separate categories (mixed compositions are not allowed).

Basic Rules
International basketball rules were adopted in 1932, but have been adjusted more than once. The final set of rules was approved in 2004. It included all sorts of amendments regarding the nuances of national and international tournaments.

In the starting lineup of the match on the court should be 10 players (5 on each side). Each team should be located in its own half. During the game, the ball can only be touched by hands. Running with the ball is allowed in parallel with hitting them on the floor. It is forbidden to hit the projectile with the foot, cover it with the body, throw it into the basket with a fist. A gross violation is a run when a basketball player took more than one step with the ball in his hands without hitting it on the floor. In this case, accidental contact with the foot or back of the ball is not considered a violation (at the discretion of the judge).

The victory in the match is won by the team that, after the final beep, scored the most points. In case of an equal score, an additional time is assigned – a 5-minute overtime. If, after the first overtime, the opponents could not determine the winner, a second overtime, etc.

For different types of ball hits in the ring, a different number of points is counted:

for a free throw – 1 point;
for a throw from close or medium range – 2 points;
for a throw from outside the three-point line – 3 points.
A basketball game always starts with a controversial shot in the center circle. Then the teams play for 4 quarters of 10 minutes with breaks of 2 minutes. In the NBA, a quarter lasts 12 minutes. A break in the middle of the match is 15 minutes. After him, the rivals change baskets.

Additionally, each team receives 2 time-outs in the first half of the game and 3 time-outs in the second half. Their duration is 30 seconds. The timeout taken by one side extends to the other. Unused timeouts may not be carried forward to the next half of the match or an extra period. In each overtime, opponents have 1 timeout.

Formal competitions can be held in the hall or in the open air. The size of the field is 28 by 15 m. The height of the shield is 2.9 m, its dimensions are 1.8 by 1.05 m. The basket is a metal rim covered with a net with a hole in the bottom for the ball. The ring is attached at a distance of 15 cm from the bottom edge of the shield and at 3.05 m from the field level.

In the men’s category, the ball circumference should be in the range from 74.9 to 78 cm, and the mass should be from 567 to 650 g. In the female category, the circumference should be 72.4-73.7 cm, and the mass should be from 510 to 567 g.

Violation of the rules
The list of official violations of the rules in basketball include:

Out. The standard position when the ball has gone outside the playing area.
Goal violation. It is fixed for the following set of actions: dribbling the ball, stopping, covering the projectile with two hands and continuing dribbling.
Jogging. The player with the ball moves more than one step without hitting the ball on the floor, or more than two hits without a subsequent throw in the ring.
A jump from a place with a ball in his hand.
The rule of “3 seconds.” The attacking player is in the rectangular zone under the opponent’s ring for more than 3 seconds, while his team owns the ball in the attack zone.
The rule is “5 seconds.” A player during a throw-in does not introduce a projectile into the game for more than 5 seconds, or a player who owns a “live” ball does not make a pass and throw for more than 5 seconds.
The rule is “8 seconds.” The team in the back of the field did not take the ball out of the front zone for 8 seconds.
The “24th second” rule. The team in possession of the ball did not make a single shot on the opponent’s ring in 24 seconds. The counter is reset when the projectile touches the bow of the ring. After this touch, the attacking team has the right to make a selection and take possession of an additional 14 seconds.
Ball return violation. The attacking team must bring the ball into the defense zone, after which a new possession begins.
If a violation has been committed on the player of the attacking team, then she will be entitled to:

continuation of the countdown from the moment of stopping if the team had 14 or more seconds of possession;
new 14-second possession, if at the time of violation the team had less than 14 seconds of possession;
new 24 second possession, if the team that owned the ball at the time of the violation takes the ball into the game in the defense zone.

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