Cross Country: The Official Game Rules Briefly
Cross-country is one of the most popular and interesting mountain bike disciplines. Racing in this sport takes place on rough terrain with long ascents and descents, numerous technical and high-speed sections. The…

Continue reading →

Darts: official game rules briefly
Darts is a whole complex of games whose goal is to throw darts at a round target on the wall. Do not confuse with other games where you need to throw…

Continue reading →

Alpine skiing slalom: official game rules briefly
Slalom is one of the main disciplines of skiing, which is included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. Its name comes from the Norwegian word "slalam", which translates as…

Continue reading →

Volleyball: official rules of the game briefly

Volleyball belongs to the category of team sports. The essence of the game is the confrontation of two teams in a special area, which is divided by a grid. Opponents must direct the ball to half of the opponent’s field so that the projectile lands on the floor. For such productive actions, the team receives points. The party that scores first a certain number of points wins the game.

The central body of this sport is the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB), which is responsible for approving the rules of the game and organizing major international competitions.

Modern volleyball can be called a combination and non-contact sport, where each member of the team has a strict specialization on the site. For a professional volleyball player, jumping, reaction, physical strength and coordination are considered the most important qualities.

Today, there are many modifications of the classic game, for example, beach volleyball, pionerball, mini-volleyball, etc.

General rules

The volleyball match continues until one of the teams wins three games. Before the start of the match, the judge in the presence of team captains by lot determines the right to first serve. After each game, the rivals change sides of the court. In the case of the score 2: 2 re-drawing takes place. In the fifth game, upon reaching 8 points of one of the teams, a change of sides is made.

Volleyball is not limited to time. It lasts up to 25 points. A tie-break in the fifth installment goes up to 15 points. The last game continues until the advantage over the opponent reaches 2 points.

Each team in a game can take 2 timeouts of 30 seconds. In the first four games, judges are additionally assigned technical 60-second timeouts if one of the opponents reaches 8 and 16 points.

The team coach in each game has the right to make up to 6 substitutions of field players. The only exception is libero. Replaced players may return to the court at any time instead of players who previously respectively replaced them.

In the event of a player injury, the team is allowed to make an “exceptional” substitution, even if all 6 substitutions in the game have already been made, but there can only be one substitution.

Site and Inventory Requirements

The volleyball court is a rectangle limited by marking. The coating can be plastic, wooden or tennisite. The length of the site is 18 m, the width is 9 m. The grid divides the site across into two equal squares of 9 by 9 m. Its width is 1 m and its length is 9 m. The highest point of the grid is traditionally located at a height of 2.43 m from the floor. In women’s categories, the height is 2.24 m.

The grid is attached to two vertical antennas located opposite each other on the side lines. Parallel to the grid 3 meters from it, lines are drawn on each side, which are called attack lines.

In volleyball, the court is surrounded by a free zone with at least 5 m in front and behind, at least 3 m in side, and at least 7 m in height. Players have the right to enter this zone to receive the ball, pass and hit. However, playing within the free zone is permitted only after the ball has been served.

The boundaries of the court are part of it, so if a ball hits any line, points are counted.

The volleyball has a special frame around which panels of artificial or natural leather are stretched. Often each panel consists of 3 sections (rows), but an alternative structure is allowed. Modern diagonal balls do not always have even sections. The color of the shell can be any, but mostly white or yellow-blue balls are used. Weight is 260-280 g with a circumference of 65 to 67 cm. Similar balls are used in beach volleyball.

Team and players

In the application of one team there can be up to 14 players, but during the game there should be 6 people on the court. Traditionally, a match begins with putting the ball into the game according to the draw. After a successful rally, the flow goes to the team that won the point. The site is conditionally divided into 6 zones by the number of players. After each serve, players must move sequentially to the next area clockwise.

There is no clear difference between the zones, but there are certain restrictions on the actions of players and their arrangement:

  1. In volleyball, there is a separation of players into the front (zones 2, 3, 4) and the back lines (zones 1, 5, 6). Representatives of the team playing on the back line cannot attack above the cable and put blocks near the net, that is, closer than the 3-meter line.
  2. At the time of filing, you can be in an arbitrary position, but the back line players must be behind the front line players. It is also important to observe a clear sequence of locations within each line.


The origin and development of the principles of "fair play"
Any sports are attracted by the sincere desire of the participants to win. Football was no exception. The most popular team game is simply replete with emotions, uncompromising struggle and…


Greco-Roman wrestling: official rules of the game briefly
Greco-Roman wrestling, it is also French and classic wrestling, is a European martial art style, in which athletes must use their entire technical arsenal to unbalance rivals and press their…


Rowing slalom: official game rules briefly
Rowing slalom is a variety of kayaking and canoeing. The essence of this discipline is to overcome at a speed a section of a rapids river marked by special gates. Artificial routes…


BMX freestyle: official game rules briefly
Freestyle BMX is today considered one of the most developing extreme disciplines in the world. The essence of the competition lies in performing various tricks on special BMX class bikes. Currently, tournaments…