Karate: official game rules briefly
Karate (karate-do) is a Japanese martial art, which is a unique system of combining defense and attack techniques. The name of the discipline translates as “empty hand.” It was approved in 1935. Later, the ending “before” was added to the name, which from the Japanese language means “road”, “direction”. Thus, the full name of this martial art can be translated as the “path of the empty hand” of a fighter in philosophical understanding. In this context, the road to self-improvement of the mind and body is meant.
Styles and Directions
Today, experts identify 3 areas of karate:
All of them arose in Japan in the 20th century and were subsequently divided into the following styles:
Karate styles appear due to a new vision of the philosophy of art of outstanding masters of schools. However, experts believe that many teachers in this way only increase interest in their projects, in fact, the technique remains unchanged.
In any direction of karate there is a system of degrees and belts. Students gradually receive new kyu, and masters claim to be given. There are a total of 10 such degrees. Their external attribute is a belt of a certain color (from white to black).
Currently, it is customary to distinguish 3 basic karate techniques:
- Kihon This is the basic technique that is the basis for all workouts. Demanded in the training of beginners.
- Kata A set of formal exercises aimed at a battle with one or more invisible opponents (shadow boxing).
- Cum. Equipment for training in pairs. In this case, the fight is divided into conditional and free fight. In the second form, karateka sports are held. According to the rules of this technique, it is forbidden to strike at full strength. Kicks and hands are allowed only on the body and head.
Karate exercises are always performed in a single chain and are aimed at training attacking and defensive movements.
Kata competitions are allowed in group competitions.
Organizations and tournaments
Today, every major karate-do style has a separate international federation. They are united in national clusters that are subordinate to the World Karate Federation. The parent organization promoting this martial art was created in 1957, but has since changed its name several times. In 1990, the World Karate Federation began to represent its interests on the Olympic Committee. The result of cooperation was the inclusion of karate in the program of the Olympic Games 2020.
The most famous and prestigious competition in this discipline is the karate world championship. It is held every 2 years in different countries under the auspices of the World Federation. The debut championship took place in 1970 and included only men’s categories. The victory in it was unconditionally celebrated by Japanese athletes.
In addition, European and Asian championships are very popular among professional karatekas and spectators.
The homeland of this martial art is considered to be the island of Okinawa. It was from there at the end of the 19th century that karate came to Japan. For most of its history, Okinawa has been the center of trade routes between Japan and China. In the 17th century, the local kingdom of Ryukyu was conquered by the principality of Satsuma. For a long time, the indigenous islanders waged a guerrilla war against the Japanese samurai, just using the technique of karate in the fight.
At the end of the 19th century, after administrative reforms, Okinawa became the prefecture of the Japanese Empire. Already at that time, the Japanese military commanders noted the excellent physical readiness and flexibility of the draftees from the island. It turned out that all Okinawa adolescents since childhood have studied in depth the martial art of Tote, which has become the foundation of modern karate-do. Very soon, tote was included in the compulsory program of sports schools throughout Japan.
New hand-to-hand fighting techniques quickly gained approval from the samurai. By the beginning of the 20th century, all military personnel were trained with Tote masters. The acquired skills helped them in the Russian-Japanese war.
Technology began to socialize only in 1924. The impetus for popularization among the people was the opening of the Tote public club on the basis of the University of Tokyo. By the beginning of the 1930s, the martial art of the Okinawa people became in demand in all provinces of Japan. The universities taught the history and philosophy of discipline, which in 1935 was officially renamed karate. Masters of this art traveled all over the country with master classes and demonstrations by students. Funakoshi is considered the founder of the modern karate style, who opened the famous Setokan school.
In 1945, after the defeat of Japan in the war, the American occupation forces banned all national martial arts in the country, but the authorities managed to resist karate, as it was positioned as a form of gymnastics. Over the years, interest in karate has grown from Europe, the USA, Latin America, other countries of Asia and Oceania. In the USSR, art was entrenched only in the early 1980s after the large-scale national karate championship.