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Judo: official game rules briefly

Judo is a type of Japanese martial arts without weapons, which represents a whole philosophical trend. Literally, the name can be translated as “soft path” or “flexible path”. The rules and principles of the discipline were formulated by the Japanese martial artist Kano back in the late 19th century. Today, judo is practiced by tens of millions of people around the world.

General principles

Unlike karate and boxing, judo throws are considered to be throws, deductions, painful techniques and strangulation. Fighters learn dangerous methods and strikes only within the framework of the kata, where the main goal of the methods is to train the accuracy of movements, and not harm the health of the enemy. Judo is distinguished from any other type of wrestling by its minimal use of physical force and a wide variety of technical actions.

Judo is always based on 3 principles:

  • mutual assistance in order to achieve greater progress;
  • effective use of body and spirit;
  • in order to win, you must give in.

Before his students, the master prioritizes preparation for hand-to-hand combat, physical education, improving consciousness, discipline, self-control, perseverance, etiquette, and the selection of acceptable means to achieve a result.

Today, traditional and sports judo are developing in parallel. The first is presented in classical martial arts schools, and the second is an international competition. Sports judo is also included in the Olympic program. Its development in the world is engaged in the International Judo Federation (IJF). Sports judo differs from the traditional judo in a great emphasis on the enemy’s attack and entertainment.

Each judoka has a specific student or master degree – kyu or dan, respectively. Depending on qualifications, he can move up the ladder of degrees, receiving new belts (white, brown, black, red-white, red). The youngest kyu is the tenth, the eldest is the first. Workshops have the opposite order: the youngest is the first, the oldest is the tenth.

Competition Rules

Official judo competitions are held using the techniques of Shiai (wrestling) and kata (tournaments in pairs for the correct execution of the elements). According to the form of participation, the competition can be divided into:

  • individual;
  • team;
  • adjacent.

Competition formats can also be different:

  • on a circular system;
  • on the Olympic format with comforting meetings;
  • relegation tournament;
  • on a mixed system.

The largest and most prestigious competitions are held according to the Olympic system with comforting meetings (for participants of the 1/4 final stage). According to this format, athletes are divided into 2 groups (4 pools) and compete according to the rules of the playoffs, that is, the relegation. The winner of the tournament and the silver medalist are identified in the final battle between the winners of the two groups. In addition to the first and second places, there is a bronze draw. Opponents who lose in the semifinals fight for third place.

The fights are held on a square carpet (tatami) with a side of 14 m. The bout itself is carried out inside the square 8 by 8 m. Judges evaluate only the actions shown to athletes within the combat zone. Contestants must wear judogi in blue and white. The duration of one fight is 5 minutes. Three referees serve the competition.

Judokas are allowed to hold, throws in the rack, asphyxiation and painful techniques in the stalls. In this case, only painful techniques of the elbow joint are allowed. Strokes, strangulation and pain in the rack are prohibited.

At the beginning of the battle, the rivals become opposite each other and bow, then after the judge’s team they start the fight. Shaking hands before the fight is prohibited.

One day before the start of the tournament, all participants must undergo the weighing procedure. In total in sports judo there are 7 weight categories.

Grading system

Judges evaluate only technical actions that have been successful for the wrestlers. Today there are 3 ratings:

  • yuko (“effective reception”);
  • waza-ari (“half the technique”);
  • ippon (“pure victory”).

The judo score is given in judo for:

  • slow or power throw of the opponent on a smaller part of the back;
  • holding the opponent from 10 to 15 seconds.

The waza-ari grade is awarded for:

  • throwing an opponent onto a smaller part of the back, but when performing two of the three throwing elements;
  • holding hold for 15 to 20 seconds.

Ippon is awarded for the following actions:

  • strong quick throw on most of the back;
  • hold for more than 20 seconds;
  • the opponent surrendered during the execution of a choking or painful reception;
  • the result of strangulation or painful administration is obvious to the arbiter (loss of consciousness of the opponent, etc.).

For violation of the rules of the competition, the panel of judges appoints the participants a “sid”. For example, such sanctions can be imposed for passivity, forbidden tricks, simulation, pulling in the ground, constant protection against seizures, low stance, unsportsmanlike behavior, etc. The fourth warning is the disqualification of a judoka.

If the points are equal at the end of the bout, an additional period of 2 minutes is assigned before the first assessment. If, based on the results of the extra time, the winner has not been identified again, the judges shall decide on the victory.

Element technique

In modern judo, there are 3 main technical styles of Kodokan:

  • kata (a set of formal exercises for couples);
  • randori (the struggle according to the stipulated rules for the purpose of teaching new technical methods);
  • Shiai (competition).

The Kodokan textbooks include sections on basic stance training, movement, self-insurance, methods of capturing capture, and resuscitation techniques.

Classes are always held on the tatami barefoot. In training and competitions, athletes always wear judogi (a special jacket, pants and a belt).

Kodokan judo has in its arsenal about a hundred receptions of nage waza and katame waza. They are built on an unlimited number of variable techniques – Hank Waza. All of them are studied in the form of kata, that is, in pairs. In judo, throws over the shoulder, back and thigh are common, as well as sweeps, grabs, and trips. Experts distinguish throws from the rack and throws with a fall.

A wide arsenal of painful techniques should include:

  • leverage (extension of a limb in a joint above its physiological limit);
  • nodes (twisting of a limb in a joint).

The technique of retention is necessary for fixing the opponent with his back on the tatami after the reception.

Choking methods are of 2 types:

  • respiratory strangulation (mechanical blocking of the possibility of breathing);
  • “Blood” strangulation (squeezing the flow of blood to the brain).



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