Rowing academic: official game rules briefly
Rowing is rightfully included in one of the most interesting and complex cyclic water sports. Its essence is that athletes must paddle in special boats, using only the muscles of their arms, legs and back. At the same time, they must go the entire distance with their backs forward. This sport should not be confused with canoeing and kayaking, where the rowers sit mainly facing forward, and the technique of movement is different.
Today, rowing is widespread in Western Europe, Russia, Australia, New Zealand and the USA.
Varieties of rowing
In modern competitions in this sport, men and women can participate. By the way of rowing it can be divided into two types:
- Pair rowing. The bottom line is that the rower holds an oar in each hand. In this case, the left hand should be in front of the drift in front of the right. In this case, the possibility of a collision of hands during the stroke cycle is excluded.
- Rowing. The difference is that the rower should only hold one oar with both hands. Capture is carried out with a turn of the body along the axis of the body. The hand, which is located closer to the end of the oar, is called traction (external). She is responsible for removing the oars from the water and helps to control him during the drift (moving along the boat). The second hand is called the inside and is located closer to the swivel. She is responsible for turning the oars and enhances his traction.
A boat can contain one, two, four or eight rowers at a time. Moreover, the weight of athletes is strictly limited. Today, experts distinguish the following classes of rowing, which are included in the Olympic competition program:
- pair deuces;
- paired fours;
- oar deuces without steering;
- swinging fours without steering;
- swing eights;
- paired lightweight deuces.
At the world rowing championships, the competition program is expanded by three more classes:
- lightweight singles;
- oar lightweight deuces;
- paired fours of light weight.
In this case, the rules of this sport impose restrictions on the steering. Its weight should not be more than normal. If it is smaller, then a special ballast is installed in the boat. At the same time, the gender of the helmsman does not matter, that is, in the female crew the helmsman is allowed, and vice versa. As for the mixed crew, this is only allowed in commercial tournaments. At the World Championships and the Olympics, all rowers in the boat must be of the same sex.
There is no single canonical technique in this sport. There is a certain set of techniques and requirements, but each rower has his own technique. It is based on a sense of water, the balance of a boat and other ideas. That is why coaches never limit students in techniques and behavior on the water. Their task is to maximize the adaptation of rowing techniques individually for each athlete.
Experts highlight two important points in the technique of the “academician” – the beginning and end of the stroke. If you hone the ability to correctly enter and exit these phases, then the athlete gets the perfect balance, trajectory and speed. This is the main feature that gives rowers an advantage over competitors in competitions. With the increase of the crew, the significance of the stroke phases increases, since the team must do everything synchronously quickly and correctly over time.
Professionals distinguish 7 main phases of the stroke:
- Start. The rower is in a forward position with outstretched, relaxed arms. The body should form an acute angle with the legs. The paddle blade is rotated perpendicular to the surface of the water.
- Capture At the beginning of the stroke, when the oars are immersed in water for a second, there is a barely noticeable movement of the shoulders back to feel the force on the oar.
- Pushing the boat. After the capture, the entire body begins to move. The legs should be ahead of the body and arms for a split second to prevent a possible collision of the arms and knees in the middle of the cycle.
- Acceleration It accompanies the full cycle of the stroke, but is most pronounced when the hands go beyond the knees back, that is, before the break of the stroke itself. In this case, acceleration is automatically caused by the need for synchronized completion of the stroke with the body, when the “academician” is forced to “catch up” with his legs. Acceleration also helps to quickly press the blades at the end of the cycle and easily remove the paddle by inertia of the body from the water. At this moment, the boat gets maximum acceleration.
- The end of the stroke. In this phase, the body is in the rear position, and the body forms an obtuse angle with the legs. This element in rowing is called going beyond the vertical. The oars should go to the lower ribs, and at the end of the stroke the “academician” presses them to finally remove the blades from the water. In this way he prepares the oars for subsequent forward knees.
- Quick conclusion. This is the phase between moving out of the end of the stroke and moving the arms forward beyond the knees. The exit should be quick so as not to load the bow of the boat by subsidence and not to reduce its speed. At the final stage of the phase, the arms are extended as much as possible, and the body forms an acute angle with the legs, which remain extended and tense.
- Recovery. At the end of the quick exit, the movement of the body, arms and legs to the initial position follows. All parts of the body should be relaxed. At this moment, the speed of the “academician” in the boat is much lower, since he needs a certain amount of time to recover.
Then the cycle starts anew and repeats until the boat comes to the finish line. The exception may be only short pauses for rest (recovery). Long pauses are allowed only when the boat is moving downstream.